What Paul Manafort’s Trump Tower notes mean May 22, 2018 – The Senate Judiciary Committee’s Trump Tower meeting testimonies were released May 16th. So far, a week later, the mainstream media has not analyzed Paul Manafort’s “cryptic” notes. Not hard if you look at Russian lawyer Natalia Veselnitskaya’s testimony that presents in more detail what she said at the meeting. Which the media ignore. Perhaps because it would spotlight inconvenient truths about Bill Browder and his major client, Ziff Investments.
Veselnitskaya wanted to meet Don Trump Jr
Browder donated $400,000 to HELLary July 20, 2018 - Putin accused Bill Browder of donating $400,000 to HILLARY CLINTON! Putin would permit Mueller to Russia to assist in their investigation of the supposed Trump-Russia collusion story. Then the US could reciprocate Russia in investigating Bill Browder.
Browder illegally earned over $1.5 billion in Russia and never paid any taxes in Russia or the United States.
Putin believes some US intelligence officers guided these transactions. Putin asked President Trump if Russia could interview Obama’s Ambassador, Michael McFaul over Bill Browder financial crimes. Democrats and media melted down! Sarah Sanders said Trump rejected Putin’s request. kek.gg/u/vc5N
Bill Browder, the false crusader for justice and human rights and the self-proclaimed No. 1 enemy of Vladimir Putin has perpetrated a brazen and dangerous deception upon the Western world. Mr. Browder uses all of the smarmy language, and all of the tricks of the worst and most vicious sort of CIA propaganda, as we have witnessed its development and application over the last 70 years: demonization and flat out lies, the aims of which are destabilization, chaos, mayhem and “regime change” in Russia. The extent to which intelligent people fall for Browder tales uncritically is astounding.
Browder has been squashing any dissenting voices to his narrative: The Magnitsky Act — Behind the Scenes documentary by Andrei Nekrasov has not been shown because the Browder lawyers had basically attacked everybody involved in trying show it. Browder Shenanigans Browder and Edmond Safra (1932–1999) founded Hermitage Capital Management in 1996 for the purpose of investing initial seed capital of $25 million in Russia during the period of the mass privatization after the fall of the Soviet Union. Beny Steinmetz was another of the original investors in Hermitage.
Following the Russian financial crisis of 1998, Browder remained committed to Hermitage’s original mission of investing in Russia, despite significant outflows from the fund. Hermitage became a prominent activist shareholder in the Russian gas giant Gazprom, the large oil company Surgutneftegaz, RAO UES, Sberbank, Sidanco, Avisma and Volzhanka. Browder exposed management corruption and corporate malfeasance in these partly state-owned companies. He has been quoted as saying: “You had to become a shareholder activist if you didn’t want everything stolen from you”.
In 1999, Avisma filed a RICO lawsuit against Browder and other Avisma investors including Kenneth Dart, alleging they illegally siphoned company assets into offshore accounts and then transferred the funds to US accounts at Barclays. Browder and his co-defendants settled with Avisma in 2000; they sold their Avisma shares as part of the confidential settlement agreement.
In 1995–2006 Hermitage Capital Management was one of the largest foreign investors in Russia, and Browder amassed millions through his management of the fund. In both 2006 and 2007, he earned an estimated £125-150 million
In March 2013, HSBC, a bank that serves as the trustee and manager of Hermitage Capital Management, announced that it would end the fund’s operations in Russia. The decision was taken amid two legal cases against Browder: a libel court case in London and a trial in absentia for tax evasion in Moscow.
Conflict with Russian government In 2006, after ten years of business deals in Russia, Browder was blacklisted by the Russian government as a “threat to national security” and denied entry to the country. The Economist wrote that the Russian government blacklisted Browder because he interfered with the flow of money to “corrupt bureaucrats and their businessmen accomplices”. Browder had earlier supported Russian president Vladimir Putin.
As reported in 2008 by The New York Times, “over the next two years several of his associates and lawyers, as well as their relatives, became victims of crimes, including severe beatings and robberies during which documents were taken”. In June 2007, dozens of police officers “swooped down on the Moscow offices of Hermitage and its law firm, confiscating documents and computers. When a member of the firm protested that the search was illegal, he was beaten by officers and hospitalized for two weeks, said the firm’s head, Jamison R. Firestone.” Hermitage became “victim of what is known in Russia as ‘corporate raiding’: seizing companies and other assets with the aid of corrupt law enforcement officials and judges”. Three Hermitage holding companies were seized on what the company’s lawyers insist were bogus charges.
The raids in June 2007 enabled corrupt law enforcement officers to steal the corporate registration documents of three Hermitage holding companies. They perpetrated a fraud, claiming (and receiving) the $230 million of taxes paid by those companies to the Russian state in 2006. In November 2008 one of Hermitage’s auditors, Sergei Magnitsky, was arrested. He was charged with the very tax evasion that he was investigating. Magnitsky died on November 16, 2009 in prison, after eleven months in pretrial detention, nearly the limit allowed under the law.
As a result of the controversy related to his arrest and evidence of mistreatment and abuse, his death aroused international coverage and outrage. Magnitsky’s death was the catalyst for passage by the U.S. Congress, of the Magnitsky Act, signed into law by President Barack Obama on December 14, 2012. The act directly targeted individuals involved in the Magnitsky affair by prohibiting their entrance to the United States and their use of its banking system. The Russian government too retaliated by prohibiting adoption of Russian children by American citizens, and prohibiting certain individuals from entering Russia.
In February 2013, Russian officials announced that Browder and Magnitsky (an accountant and not a lawyer)would both be tried for evading $16.8 million in taxes. In March 2013, Russian authorities announced that they would be investigating Hermitage’s acquisition of Gazprom shares worth $70 million. The investigation will be focusing on whether Browder violated any Russian laws when Hermitage used Russian companies registered in the region of Kalmykia to buy shares. (An investigation by the Council of Europe’s Committee on Legal Affairs and Human Rights cleared Browder of the accusations of improprieties that surfaced at this time.) At the time, according to the Russian law, foreigners were barred from directly owning Gazprom shares. Browder has also been charged with trying to gain access to Gazprom’s financial reports.
Browder admitted having sought influence in Gazprom but denied any wrongdoing. He said that purchasing Gazprom shares was an investment in the Russian economy, and the desire to influence the Gazprom management was driven by the need to expose a “huge fraud going on at the company”. He also said that the scheme of using Russian-registered subsidiaries entitled to tax advantages was practised by other foreign investors at the time and was not illegal. He also said that he believed the trial was a response to the United States passing the Magnitsky Act, which had blacklisted Russian officials involved in Magnitsky’s death from entering the U.S. The Financial Times reported that this trial was the first in Russian history that included a dead defendant.
Amnesty International described the trial as “a whole new chapter in Russia’s worsening human rights record” and a “sinister attempt to deflect attention from those who committed the crimes Magnitsky exposed”. The American weekly magazine The Nation had said in December 2012 that the Magnitsky Act “recklessly and needlessly jeopardized US-Russian cooperation in vital areas from Afghanistan and the Middle East to international terrorism and nuclear proliferation”.
On 11 July 2013, Browder was convicted in absentia by a district criminal court in Moscow on charges under article 199 of the RF Criminal Code (tax-evasion by organisations), and sentenced to nine years. Magnitsky was posthumously convicted of fraud. In May 2013 and again in July 2013, Interpol rejected requests by Russia’s Interior Ministry to put Browder on its search list and locate and arrest him, saying that Russia’s case against him was “predominantly political”.
In April 2014, the European Parliament unanimously passed a resolution to impose sanctions on more than 30 Russians complicit in the Magnitsky case; the first time in the parliament’s history that a vote has been held to establish a public sanctions list.
In addition to having Hillary Clinton and the DNC as clients, Fusion GPS was also an agent of the Russian government.
FusionGPS was hired by the law firm of Baker Hostetler to compile a dossier on Bill Browder, a London banker. Browder lobbied strongly for passage of the Magnitsky Act, or Russia sanctions bill. The bill is named for an employee of Browder who died under suspicious circumstances in a Russian while investigating the loss of $350 million. The sanctions bill must he re-authorized every several years. Glenn Simpson, a founding partner of Fusion GPS, compiled the dossier for the Russian sponsored anti-Browder project and worked closely with Natalia Veselnitskaya, a Russian lawyer. Denis Katsyv, the owner of Prevezon Holdings, sought to undo and limit the impact of sanctions in the 2016 re-authorization bill. BakerHostetler, the firm representing Katsyv and Prevezon Holdings made a payment to FusionGPS on March 7, 2016, court records indicate. Through October 31, 2016 BakerHostetler paid FusionGPS $523,651.
Natalie Veselnitskaya was granted special immigration parole status by Obama Attn. General Loretta Lynch to represent Prevezon Holdings in an asset forfeiture agreement for $6 million with the U.S. government over a Russia money-laundering suit on May 12, 2016. Veselnitskaya overstayed her immigration parole status to work for FusionGPS in an illegal lobbying scheme for repeal of Russian sanctions. Neither Veselnitskaya nor FusionGPS registered as Russian agents under the Foreign Agents Registration Act (FARA).
Simpson’s Russian lobbying work involved passing stories to his deep network of journalism contacts in order to undermine the Magnitsky Act. Bill Browder, a London banker whom the Russians cheated out of $350 million, confirmed FusionGPS was paid by Russia through the Katsyv family. The Katsyv family is headed by Pyotr Katsyv, Vice President of ‘Russian Railways’, a huge Russian transportation company, in which the Russian government is the sole shareholder. The Obama FBI and DOJ ignored Browder's Foreign Agents Registration Act (FARA) complaint.
FARA violations Throughout the Trump-Russia scandal the Magnitsky Act was used as a pretext to justify the Obama administration's illegal domestic spying on domestic political opponents.
The Magnitsky Act of 2012 is the Russian Sanctions bill. Named for Serge Magnitsky, an investigator who was allegedly starved and murdered on the 357 day of a 365-day sentence while in a Russian prison. His employer, Bill Browder, is a billionaire global investor who beginning in the mid 1990s made very large investments in the Russian Federation. Browder at one time was a good friend of Vladimir Putin. Browder had invested about $230 million with Russian oligarchs, however by the 2010s suspected fraudulent accounting after sustaining massive losses. Browder sent Magnitsky to investigate, but instead was thrown in prison and accused of owing taxes for the company he represented which was trying to recover its losses.
Browder contacted Sen. John McCain with the story and a list of very powerful Russian oligarchs close to Vladimir Putin whom Browder accused of stealing his money. When the Crimean annexation occurred in 2014, McCain used Browder's list to create a "targeted sanctions" list of specific individuals, oligarchs, and businesses who now, by the Magnitsky Act, are blacklisted by all US citizens and businesses from doing business with. Among them is a company called Prevezon Holdings.
On March 31, 2017 Senate Judiciary Committee Chairman Grassley inquired of the Justice Dept. about a complaint filed in July 2016 alleging FusionGPS, authors of the Clinton-Steele dossier, acting as an unregistered agent of Russia in a lobbying campaign to rewrite and overturn the Magnitsky Act, a law named for a whistleblower who was allegedly murdered while in custody in Russia. The law imputed sanctions against certain Russian officials. Grassley wrote that when FusionGPS reportedly was acting as an unregistered agent of Russian interests, it simultaneously was creating the Steele dossier of unsubstantiated allegations of conspiracy between the Trump campaign and the Russians. The Obama Justice Dept. had done nothing since July 2016 to respond to the complaint of FusionGPS' violation of the Foreign Agents Registration Act (FARA).
The committee also sought to determine the extent to which the FBI relied on the Steele dossier in its investigation. Grassley requested documentation from Fusion GPS as to who hired and paid them, when Steele was hired, how the FBI got involved and whether Fusion GPS was aware of the FBI paying Steele.
On July 21 Sen. Grassley subpoenaed Glenn Simpson, founder of FusionGPS in the matter of unregistered lobbying on behalf of Russian clients (FARA violations) for the repeal of sanctions (the Magnitsky Act).
On July 28, 2017 Bill Browder testified before Senate Judiciary Committee on Russian employment of FusionGPS. FusionGPS simultaneously was employed by Clinton operatives and was offered cash by James Comey for corroborative evidence of the Clinton-Steele dossier which FusionGPS manufactured with the help of Russians to smear Donald Trump. Browder provide further details in August of FusionGPS being paid by Russia, through the Katsyv family, headed by Pyotr Katsyv, Vice President of ‘Russian Railways’, a huge Russian transportation company, in which the Russian government is the sole shareholder.
Ike Kaveladze and FusionGPS operatives Natalia Veselnitskaya and Rinat Akhmetshin met with Donald Trump Jr. and Jared Kushner on June 9, 2016. The meeting was arranged by Fusion GPS associate Rob Goldstone. Glenn Simpson met with Veselnitskaya immediately before and after. Veselnitskaya told NBC News the information she used in the meeting she got from Simpson. FusionGPS hired Christopher Steele to author the Steele dossier three days after the meeting. Special Prosecutor Robert Mueller never talked to Veselnitskaya.
Nearly a year later, on May 8, 2017 Eric and Donald Trump Jr. we're summoned to FBI headquarters for an emergency meeting with Dir. Comey, bureau cybersecurity agents and CIA representatives. An FBI press release said the government alerted the brothers of a cyberattack. However the brothers, who were initially contacted by email for the June 9, 2016 meeting with FusionGPS operatives, were in no mood to talk.
Director Comey was fired the next day. Andrew McCabe became Acting Director. Despite being under no less than three Inspector General investigations into the Clinton, Russia, and FusionGPS matters, McCabe still failed to recuse himself from the Russia investigation.
During Comey's Congressional testimony three weeks later Don Jr. sent out 80 tweets critical of Comey, evidently still fuming over the May 8, 2017 "emergency meeting" with Comey and CIA cyber experts.
On July 8, 2017 Mark Corallo, attorney for Donald Trump, Jr. revealed that FusionGPS, a firm employed by the Clinton campaign and the DNC, had misrepresented themselves to arrange a meeting between Donald Trump Jr, and a Russian lawyer in the Summer of 2016 in an effort to compromise the Trump organization. Reports also indicate Natalia Veselnitskaya, the FusionGPS operative and Russian lawyer who lobbied for repeal of Russian sanctions (the Magnitsky Act), was granted special immigration parole status by Attorney General Loretta Lynch's office, so she could represent her Russian client Denis Katsyv and his company, Prevezon Holdings Ltd.,
President Trump said firing Comey was one of the great honors of his life.
On June 24, 2017 the mainstream media began reporting on FBI collusion with the Democratic party opposition research firm, FusionGPS, to smear Donald Trump. The next day CNN was reported to have imposed new rules on its irresponsible fake news coverage of the Trump-Russia conspiracy theory.
FEC records show Hillary For America paid just under $5.1 million and the DNC paid nearly $5.4 million to the law firm of Perkins Coie in 2016. FEC records show Obama for America also paid $972,000 to Perkins Coie beginning in April 2016, the same time Hillary for America & DNC hired FusionGPS through Perkins Coie. The Campaign Legal Center filed a complaint with the FEC alleging the DNC and the 2016 Hillary Clinton presidential campaign committee violated campaign finance law. They failed to accurately disclose the purpose and recipient of payments for the Steele dossier alleging connections between then-candidate Donald Trump and Russia, effectively hiding these payments from public scrutiny, contrary to the requirements of federal law.
FusionGPS refused to cooperate with the Senate Judiciary Committee's question as to who in the Clinton machine hired them. The Clinton-Steele dossier formed much of the basis for the Obama administration's attacks on Donald Trump and their authorization to use the US Intelligence Community to harass and violate the civil rights of domestic political opponents.
On August 22 Glenn Simpson, FusionGPS founder refused to identify who hired FusionGPS to produce the Clinton-Steele dossier in a closed session with Senate Judiciary Committee investigators. FusionGPS had in the past sheltered its clients’ true identities by filtering money through law firms or shell companies (Bean LLC and Kernel LLC).
CNN reported that Clinton campaign chairman John Podesta was asked by Congressional investigators in his September "whether the Clinton campaign had a contractual agreement with Fusion GPS, and he said he was not aware of one, according to one of the sources. Sitting next to Podesta during the interview: his attorney Marc Elias, who worked for the law firm that hired Fusion GPS" to write the Clinton-Steele dossier for the Clinton campaign and DNC.
On October 18, 2017 Peter Fritsch and Thomas Catan, co-founders of FusionGPS, refused to identify the Clinton campaign and the DNC as the sponsors of Clinton-Steele dossier. The FusionGPS founders plead the Fifth Amendment right against self-incrimination “to every question asked of them" in the House Intelligence Committee investigation.
The Washington Post finally admitted on October 24 that the "Hillary Clinton campaign and the Democratic National Committee funded the research that resulted in the now-infamous Clinton-Steele dossier containing allegations about President Trump’s connections to Russia and possible coordination between his campaign and the Kremlin. The Clinton campaign paid Perkins Coie $5.6 million in legal fees from June 2015 to December 2016, according to campaign finance records, and the DNC paid the firm $3.6 million in “legal and compliance consulting" since November 2015. WaPo published an Oped claiming the "Steele's dossier does include information it says was obtained from 'a senior Russian Foreign Ministry figure and a former top level Russian intelligence officer still active inside the Kremlin.' In other words, the Clinton camp and the DNC colluded with the Russian government." Former Obama CIA Dir. Leon Panetta called for the Senate Intelligence Committee to look into the Clinton campaign and DNC funding of the Steele dossier. The Daily Caller reported on CNN's undisclosed ties to FusionGPS. The New York Post reported How team Hillary hoaxed the press.
In November 2017 FusionGPS payments to mainstream journalists and Russian sources became public.
The Washington Times questioned the motives of the Deep state coup: It was a watershed moment: the CIA, National Security Agency and FBI challenging the legitimacy of a U.S. presidential victory. The conclusions in the Jan. 6 [2017 Intelligence Community Assessment] document were sharp, but the findings unraveled 10 months later, raising questions about the basis for the evidence and the motives of the Obama appointees leading the nation’s intelligence and law enforcement agencies. The Atlantic reported during the Obama administration Russian oligarchs owned 5% of Facebook and Twitter. Prof. Mifsud, an alleged Christopher Steele contact, disappeared. Steve Mostyn, Democrat mega donor to Hillary Clinton and Barack Obama, was found dead of a gunshot wound to the head. Mostyn was a co-founder of the Ready for Hillary PAC and the 10th largest donor in the United States. Calls for the appointment of a Special Prosecutor mounted.
In January 2018 Sen. Diane Feinstein posted the transcript of Glenn Simpson's Senate Intelligence Committee testimony. Simpson said that the FBI paid for Steele's travels to Rome. The FBI was sharing information with Steele. Strzok shared FBI intelligence with someone paid by Hillary Clinton and the Democratic National Committee. Steele said of the FBI, “they want everything I have.” Simpson admitted the Russian lawyer Natalia Veselnitskaya was hired by Simpson to lobby on behalf of Russia against U.S interests for the removal of sanctions. Simpson acknowledged that he either worked with or knows of four attendees at the Trump Tower meeting: Irakle Kaveladze, Veselnitskaya, Rinat Akhmetshin, and Anatoli Samochornov. Samochornov also worked on the Prevezon case. Simpson perjured himself in denying that the Democratic party and their nominee Hillary Clinton were his clients.
You can be sure that the Russians know what it is in the DOJ IG’s report....from their own spy network.
Don’t be surprised if Special Counsel Robert Mueller’s recent Russian indictments turn out to be working with Democratic operatives or more probable never see the light of an US court room. Why would Putin offer Mueller the opportunity to come to Russia and see their investigation into the operatives? They know the truth.
Trump has signed an executive order to declassify the IG’s report so that all can see what it contains, however with the information being so damning that may not occur until after say Labor Day to have an impact for the run up to the 2018 Congress. The explosive report will outline the quid pro quo between the Obama White House and the Clinton campaign on the cover up of the email server. This involves the infamous Phoenix tarmac meeting between former President Clinton and Attorney General Loretta Lynch with a phone pick up from the Oval Office.
The whole event was captured by the Secret Service and NSA and is said to be transcribed in the report.
Look for United States Attorney John Huber to be bringing charges against all these individuals after Labor Day as well.
Trump-Putin Press Conference from Helsinki, Finland
POTUS meets Putin 16 July 2018 President Donald Trump met Russia President Putin in Finland. They visited about 2 hours, then they had a press conference together. Are they buddies now? My guess is - YEAH!
As for Crimea, Obama put a Nazi govt in Kiev, Crimea preferred Russia. They had a vote and media refuse to accept the will of the people.
WHY did Vladimir Putin mention Bill Browder at summit? Clinton Foundation Ziff Investments Sergei Magnitsky Magnitsky Act Russian lawyer Natalia Veselnitskaya wanted to meet Don Trump Jr
IG’s report Tarmac
Bill Browder was a corrupt hedge fund operator who went to Russia in the early 1990's during the dissolution of the Soviet Union with the goal of fleecing the struggling Russian Federation of billions of assets. This he managed to do...until the Russian Federation tax authorities got wise to him and closed in with their investigation.
Browder not only fled with hundreds of millions of dollars stolen from the Russian State, but, through his connections in the Deep State of USrael, he was successful in turning the tables on Russia...accusing them of exactly the same crimes that he himself was CONVICTED of in a Russian Federal court. Not only that, he has been successful in getting the United States, Latvia, The European Union and that pathetic vassal of Ziofascism, Canada, to pass something called the Magnitsky Act...which Act sanctions Russia and creates trade, business and investment barriers between Russia and the west...thus isolating Russia.
Additionally, the Magnitsky Act also acts as a method of preventing any further investigation into the crimes and cAlex Krainer went from being a "believer" in the Bill Browder "legend" of victimization into a writer who was astounded at the corruption he covered...all sourced to one man. Apparently there has also been a video documentary made on this topic which produces evidence provided by Russian court documents which not only prove Browder's tax fraud and corruption...but indicate that Browder may have himself been behind the arrest of his "lawyer" [actually his accountant, Magnitsky], who was up to his eyeballs in Browder's tax fraud...who then died while incarcerated in a Russian prison.
My take away from the hour 1 and 1/2 interview is that it is about a case at the heart of a titanic struggle between the two most powerful entities in the world at this point in history...the deep state...and the Russian Federation, led by Putin.
from Vortex 7/20/18 RICHARD BRANSON IS A PEDOPHILE WHO OWNS A PEDOPHILE ISLAND NEXT TO EPSTEIN'S PEDOPHILE ISLAND IN LITTLE ST JAMES US VIRGIN ISLANDS...BRANSON MISSOURI IS HIS BASE OF OPERATIONS FOR RUNNING HIS CHILD SEX PARTIES AND PEDOPHILE RINGS...USING ENTERTAINMENT AS A FRONT FOR COVER.
Businessman (and liar) Bill Browder on NPR Russian Lawyer Natalia Veselnitskaya July 13, 2017 William Browder locked horns with Veselnitskaya.
Browder was a hedge fund manager in Russia, where he made a lot of money. In 2008, his lawyer, Sergei Magnitsky, uncovered a $230 million corruption scheme by a number of Russian officials. Magnitsky was arrested, jailed for almost a year and died of a heart attack in custody.
Browder then pushed the U.S. Congress to pass the Magnitsky Act. It punishes Russian officials who were suspected of being involved in Magnitsky's death, denying their visas, freezing their assets. Russian President Vladimir Putin was so angry about this he ended the Russian adoption program with the United States. Veselnitskaya has worked hard to repeal the Magnitsky Act. kek.gg/u/CgpM
Documentary about Sergei Magnitsky’s death July 27, 2018 - А film about Russian lawyer Sergei Magnitsky who died in 2009 in prison is set to be shown in Washington. His death led to US sanctions.
Magnitsky was working for British-American financier Bill Browder in 2008 when he accused law enforcement and tax officials of involvement in a scam that used Browder’s investment company, Hermitage Capital, to defraud the Russian treasury out of an estimated $230m. Magnitsky was later arrested and jailed in Moscow. kek.gg/u/PXFg
Sergei Magnitsky Documentary June 2016 - Millionaire Bill Browder tries to stop Sergei Magnitsky Documentary “The Magnitsky Act” of Missing Russian $230 Million. My edit: Browder cheated and doesnt want to be exposed.
Browder's crooked hedge fund manager reputation, and the truth about how Sergei Magnitsky, a tax lawyer caught up in a $230 million dispute, wound up dead.
Nekrasov premiered Documentary “The Magnitsky Act” to a private audience whose invitees include congressional staffers, State Department employees, members of the White House National Security Council, and journalists. Investigative reporter Seymour Hersh will moderate the screening.
Russian authorities were the victims of a massive theft of $230 million from the state treasury. Magnitsky’s boss, Bill Browder, was involved in the multimillion dollar theft from Russian taxpayers. kek.gg/u/Lr4b
Today is August 1, 2018 Q post #1778 on July 31, 2018 The World is about to change
POTUS Trump signed Tax overhaul bill Dec 22, 2017 1775 flag by him in oval office The Declaration of Independence adopted by the Continental Congress of July 4, 1776
Without the pen of the author of Common Sense, the sword of Washington would have been raised in vain. - John Adams 1776
On July 2, 1776, Congress voted to approve a complete separation from England. Two days later, the early draft of the Declaration of Independence was signed. For 235 years America has been a Constitutional Republic. Preserving American liberty depends on preserving the principles on which it was founded.